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Messy UI? Think In Components, Not HTML & CSS

Have you ever heard something like this?

Designer

Your margin on this widget is 3 pixels off.

The font size on this button is too big.

The font color is not right shade.

The text didn’t change color when hovering over the button.

The designer have to make sure his design is always consistent, or else the developer is going to implement it inconsistently. The designer will have to double check the developer’s work to ensure the final product is correct. The developer will have to adjust his CSS and HTML to make it pass the Design Team, but occasionally, his changes break another page because he didn’t know changing the CSS in one spot could affect some widget in a completely different page. And the cycle repeats itself.

This kind of communication very inefficient for both the design team and the development team. It produces messy and inconsistent UI, it takes a long time for a feature to pass QA. Yet I have seen this problem crop up in many companies I have worked with.

Now let’s imagine a different conversation:

Designer

This widget uses the PricingPlan Component.

That button is a Button Component with secondary variant and small size.

The conversation is no longer about specific sizes in pixels or colors in hex. The designer and the developer both have a common language, and that language is call the Design Language. The specific margins, color shades, and sizes are predefined and agreed upon.

Component Libraries based on the Design Language are available for developers to implement the designs quickly and consistently. The features can be churned out quickly with minimal revisions. The designer trusts the developer’s implementations. The UI looks consistent throughout the site, and new features gets pushed to production without much revisions.

This is all thanks to a Design System shared between the design and development team.

What is a Design System?

So what is a Design System?

From Wikipedia
A Design System is a set of interconnected patterns and shared practices coherently organized. Design Systems aid in digital product design and development of products such as apps or websites. They may contain, but are not limited to, pattern libraries, design languages, style guides, coded components, brand languages, and documentation.

To put it in simpler terms, a Design System allows designers and developers communicate efficiently.

Some well known Design Systems includes:

Note, Bootstrap and Bulma are not full fledged Design Systems. But many companies use them as a starting point to create their own Design Systems.

Ok, enough about Design Systems. How can I achieve product consistency and development efficiency by adopting a Design System for my teams?

Initial Collaboration

From here on, I’m going to assume an existing Design System, such as Material Design, is used as the basis for your company. You can also create a new Design System from scratch, but that will take significant resources and is not suggested.

The Design Team needs to decide on which Design Language or Design Framework to use. The Development Team needs to weigh in on that decision because they will need to decide on an existing component library implementing the chosen Design Language to customize to fit into the Design Language.

For example, the Design Team decides to use Material Design as the base. The Development Team primarily uses React as the front end framework, and thus chose material-ui as the basis for their Component Library. It is a good choice because it offers global theme support. It also allows customization on the component level. It also offers a large set of components, as well as many extensions.

Whatever component library your team ends up choosing, there are limits to how much customization it supports. Thus Design Team must work with Development Team to pick something that can ensure all the customizations can be done easily and efficiently in the component library.

Design Team Goals

After the base Design System is chosen, the design team can move on to the following goals.

Catalog Components

It is important to know how many components and variants your product uses. The design team should catalog all components used on the site. All products should be based off of those components.

Design Components

After components are categorized, the designer can now create those components in their design tools. Figma is a popular used by design teams to collaborate on design work. It has reusable component support, allowing designers to design and reuse components collaboratively.

Reuse Components

When all the individual components are created in the design tools, all new designs should reuse existing components. If there is a need, new components or variants of existing components can be added. However, designers should no longer directly use position and color values. They should all be defined inside components.

Development Team Goals

After the base Design System is chosen, the development team can move on to the following goals.

Choose Component Library

An existing open source component library such as material-ui should be chosen at this stage. Developers should be encouraged to learn about this new library.

Implement Theme Extension

At this stage, developers should create a new theme package that can be used to customize the base component library to suit the company Design Language. The theme should be its own npm package, hosted privately, that can be shared and reused across different frontend projects.

A storybook should also be created and provisioned to display all the different components from the component library with themes applied. If you use Figma as a development tool, you can use the Figma Addon for Storybook to make sure component design and implementation are always in sync.

Extend Component Library

It’s very likely that your base component library does not include all the components the design team catalogued. This is when a component library extension is needed. Depending on the need, your development team can create an extension library to host all the extra components not covered by the base library. It can then be packaged as an npm component and shared across your projects.

Reuse Component Library

Finally, once the component library is setup, themes are implemented, and extensions are built, your development team can implement new features based purely on components. It’s also a good time to start refactoring old pages to new component-based implementations. Now you will have a beautiful, consistent UI. Your design and development team will also see increased product delivery and your employees will be happier.